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小升初英语语法时态重点

编辑:成都新启航家教服务有限公司  时间:2012/03/27  字号:
摘要:小升初英语语法时态重点
现在完成时是由助动词 have(has)+动词的过去分词done构成。助动词have说明该谓语是属于现在时范围。它与主语的人称、数要保持一致。过去分词done是主要的谓语动词,说明句子的意义。
2.用法
(1)表示动作发生在过去某个不确定的时间,但对现在留下了某种影响与结果。常与just、already、yet 等副词连用。如:
---Have you had dinner yet?你(已经)吃晚饭了吗?
---Yes,I have. I''ve just had it. 我刚刚吃过。(强调现在我不饿了)
(2)表示从过去某一时刻开始一直持续到现在的动作或状态。这个动作可能刚停止,可能仍然在进行。常与for与since等表示一段时间的状语连用。
如:He has livedin ShangHai since 2001.
他自从2001年就住在上海了。(可能还要继续住下去)
(3)表示说话前发生过一次或多次的动作,现在成为一种经验,一般译为汉语“过”,常带有ever,never,twice,three times等时间状语。
如: I have been to Shanghai three times.我去过上海三次。
3.结构
1)陈述句结构:主语+have/has(not)+过去分词+其它。have not=haven''t  has not=hasn''t.
2)一般疑问句结构:Have(Has )+主语+过去分词+其它。
3)特殊疑问句:特殊疑问词+have(has) +主语+ 过去分词+其它。
例如:She has already seen the film.
She hasn’t seen the film yet.
Has she seen the film yet?
Yes,she has./ No,she hasn''t.
4.现在完成时的时间状语
现在完成时属于现在时范围,故不能与过去的时间状语连用。但是,在强调动作产生的后果与影响时,可以与一些表示不确定的时间状语连用。有  already,yet,since,for,ever,never,just,before,up to now等。
如:We have already finished our homework.我们已完成作业了。
They haven''t finished their homework yet.他们还没有完成作业。
I have never been to the Great Wall.我从未去过长城。
We have studied English for three years. 我们(开始)学英语已三年了。
5.几点注意事项
(1)have been to与have gone to的区别:have been to表示“去过某地(现在已经回来了)”,可用于各人称;have gone (to)表示“去某地了(说话时某人不在当地)”,常用于第三人称,前者可与once,never,several times 等连用,后者则不能。如:They have been to Beijing twice.他们去过上海两次。
He has gone to Beijing . 他去上海了。
(2)如单纯表示一段时间,或强调一段时间,虽有since一词,也不必用完成时。
如:It is two years since his father died. =His father has been dead for two years.   他父亲去世已有三年了。
(3)终止性动词现在完成时的否定式,已变成一种可以延续的状态,因此可以与表示一段时间的状语连用。
如:I haven''t left here since 1997.自从1997年以来,我一直没有离开过这儿。  练一练:
一、用since与for填空。
1. Jill has been in Ireland Monday.
2. Jill has been in Ireland three days.
3. Mike has been ill a long time. He has been in hospital October.
4. Margaret is in her office. She has been there 7 o''clock.
5. India has been an independent country 1974.
二、用所给动词的适当形式填空。---词形大“变态”。
1. He (live) in Beijing since he was born.
2. My friend, Chang Li, (buy) a new car last week.
3. We (not hear) from them for a long time.
4. I (not read) the book before.
5. Mother  (make) me a new coat yesterday.
6. I (see) him go into the hotel just now.
答案见下期
上一期答案:
A、用动词的适当形式填空。
1) It_was__( be ) Ben’s birthday last Friday.
2)  __Are___they  going  to_sweep___ ( sweep ) the floor on Sunday? No,they__aren’t___.
3) We all__had___ ( have ) a good time last night.
4) Jim __is___going to plant( plant) trees tomorrow.
5) She likes__reading___newspapers,but she __read___a book yesterday. ( read ).
6) He __is playing__football now,but they __played__basketball just now.( play ) .
7) I _am__going to watch( watch ) a cartoon next Monday.
B、按要求改写句子。
1) My father came to the shop just now.(改为否定句)
My father___didn’t  __ __come__ to the shop just now.
2)I’m going to get up at 6:30 tomorrow.(改一般疑问句)
__Are_ __you__ __going__ to get up at 6:30 tomorrow?
3) Their teacher told them a story yesterday.(对划线部分提问)
_What_ __did_ their teacher___tell__them yesterday?
4)She is going to listen to music after school.(对划线部分提问)
__What__ __is___ she__going___ __to___ ___do__ after school?
5) David and Liu Tao did their homework together a moment ago.(改为一般疑问句)_Did__ David and Liu Tao_do_ __their_ homework together _just_   _now_.
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